Surface Syntactic Universal Dependencies (SUD)

Surface Syntactic Universal Dependencies (SUD)

SUD is an annotation scheme for syntactic dependency treebanks, and has a nearly perfect degree of two-way convertibility with the Universal Dependencies scheme (UD). Contrary to UD, it is based on syntactic criteria (favoring functional heads) and the relations are defined on distributional and functional bases.

An Example:

# sent_id = email-enronsent19_01-0071 # text = I'm happy about this. 1 I I PRON PRP Case=Nom|Number=Sing|Person=1|PronType=Prs 2 subj _ SpaceAfter=No 2 'm be AUX VBP Mood=Ind|Tense=Pres|VerbForm=Fin 0 root _ _ 3 happy happy ADJ JJ Degree=Pos 2 comp:pred _ _ 4 about about ADP IN _ 3 mod _ _ 5 SUD SUD PROPN DT Number=Sing 4 comp:obj _ SpaceAfter=No 6 . . PUNCT . _ 2 punct _ _

To see more examples, head over to the universal SUD guidelines, or to the dedicated French and Naija pages.


Automatic conversion to the SUD format is available here.


The SUD annotation scheme is described in the publications below:

SUD relations overview

The picture below describes:

The light-blue boxes at the bottom correspond to the deep syntactic features.