Surface Syntactic Universal Dependencies (SUD)
SUD is an annotation scheme for syntactic dependency treebanks, and has a nearly perfect degree of two-way convertibility with the Universal Dependencies scheme (UD). Contrary to UD, it is based on syntactic criteria (favoring functional heads) and the relations are defined on distributional and functional bases.
To see more examples, head over to the universal SUD guidelines, or to the dedicated French and Naija pages.
Automatic conversion to the SUD format is available here.
Papers about the SUD annotation scheme and SUD annotated corpora
- Sylvain Kahane, Bernard Caron, Emmett Strickland, Kim Gerdes Annotation guidelines of UD and SUD treebanks for spoken corpora: a proposal in TLT 2021.
- Sylvain Kahane, Martine Vanhove, Rayan Ziane, Bruno Guillaume. A morph-based and a word-based treebank for Beja in TLT 2021.
- Kim Gerdes, Bruno Guillaume, Sylvain Kahane, Guy Perrier. Starting a new treebank? Go SUD! Theoretical and practical benefits of the Surface-Syntactic distributional approach in DepLing 2021.
- Kim Gerdes, Bruno Guillaume, Sylvain Kahane, Guy Perrier. Improving Surface-syntactic Universal Dependencies (SUD): surface-syntactic relations and deep syntactic features in TLT 2019.
- Kim Gerdes, Bruno Guillaume, Sylvain Kahane, Guy Perrier. SUD or Surface-Syntactic Universal Dependencies: An annotation scheme near-isomorphic to UD in UDW 2018.
Other publications related to SUD
Some linguistic arguments in favor of SUD can be found in the Glossa article:
- Timothy Osborne, Kim Gerdes The status of function words in dependency grammar: A critique of Universal Dependencies (UD)
Comparing syntactic complexity and cognitive constraint of SUD and UD:
- Yan, Jianwei, and Haitao Liu. Which annotation scheme is more expedient to measure syntactic difficulty and cognitive demand?. Presented at Quasy, SyntaxFest 2019.
SUD relations overview
The picture below describes:
- in blue: the hierarchy of relations specific to SUD
- in green: the relations shared with UD
- in orange: the UD relations not used in SUD
The light-blue boxes at the bottom correspond to the deep syntactic features.