Surface Syntactic Universal Dependencies (SUD)
SUD is an annotation scheme for syntactic dependency treebanks, and has a nearly perfect degree of two-way convertibility with the Universal Dependencies scheme (UD). Contrary to UD, it is based on syntactic criteria (favoring functional heads) and the relations are defined on distributional and functional bases.
To see more examples, head over to the universal SUD guidelines, or to the dedicated French and Naija pages.
Automatic conversion to the SUD format is available here.
The SUD annotation scheme is described in the publications below:
- Kim Gerdes, Bruno Guillaume, Sylvain Kahane, Guy Perrier. Improving Surface-syntactic Universal Dependencies (SUD): surface-syntactic relations and deep syntactic features presented at TLT 2019.
- Kim Gerdes, Bruno Guillaume, Sylvain Kahane, Guy Perrier. SUD or Surface-Syntactic Universal Dependencies: An annotation scheme near-isomorphic to UD presented at UDW 2018.
- Some linguistic arguments in favor of SUD can be found in the Glossa article: Timothy Osborne, Kim Gerdes The status of function words in dependency grammar: A critique of Universal Dependencies (UD)
- Comparing syntactic complexity and cognitive constraint of SUD and UD: Yan, Jianwei, and Haitao Liu. Which annotation scheme is more expedient to measure syntactic difficulty and cognitive demand?. Presented at Quasy, SyntaxFest 2019.
SUD relations overview
The picture below describes:
- in blue: the hierarchy of relations specific to SUD
- in green: the relations shared with UD
- in orange: the UD relations not used in SUD
The light-blue boxes at the bottom correspond to the deep syntactic features.