Surface Syntactic Universal Dependencies (SUD)

Surface Syntactic Universal Dependencies (SUD)

SUD is an annotation scheme for syntactic dependency treebanks, and has a nearly perfect degree of two-way convertibility with the Universal Dependencies scheme (UD). Contrary to UD, it is based on syntactic criteria (favoring functional heads) and the relations are defined on distributional and functional bases.

An Example:

To see more examples, head over to the universal SUD guidelines, or to the dedicated French and Naija pages.


Automatic conversion to the SUD format is available here.


Papers about the SUD annotation scheme and SUD annotated corpora

Some linguistic arguments in favor of SUD can be found in the Glossa article:

Comparing syntactic complexity and cognitive constraint of SUD and UD:

SUD relations overview

The picture below describes:

The light-blue boxes at the bottom correspond to the deep syntactic features.