French SUD Guidelines

This page outlines various features specific to French.

Cleft constructions

As shown in the page about the comp:cleft relation, the cleft constructions are analysed with a comp:cleft relation going from the head of the main sentence to the head of the complement.

# text_en = Most of the furniture is actually associated with this style. # text = C'est d'ailleurs à ce style que se rattache la majorité du mobilier. 1 C' ce PRON _ _ 2 subj@expl _ Gloss=it 2 est être AUX _ _ 0 root _ Gloss=is 3 d' de ADP _ _ 2 mod _ Gloss=of 4 ailleurs ailleurs ADV _ _ 3 comp:obj _ InIdiom=Yes|Gloss=actually 5 à à ADP _ _ 2 comp:pred _ Gloss=to 6 ce ce DET _ _ 7 det _ Gloss=this 7 style style NOUN _ _ 5 comp:obj _ Gloss=style 8 que que SCONJ _ _ 2 comp:cleft _ Gloss=that 9 se se PRON _ _ 10 comp@pass _ Gloss=itself 10 rattache rattacher VERB _ _ 8 comp:obj _ Gloss=associated 11 la le DET _ _ 12 det _ Gloss=the 12 majorité majorité NOUN _ G_ 10 subj@pass _ Gloss=majority 13-14 du _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 13 de de ADP _ _ 12 udep _ Gloss=of 14 le le DET _ _ 15 det _ Gloss=the 15 mobilier mobilier NOUN _ _ 13 comp:obj _ Gloss=furniture 16 . . PUNCT _ _ 2 punct _ _
# text_en = It is the team of Avengers which is reconstituted under the aegis of SHIELD # text = C'est l'équipe des Vengeurs qui est reconstituée sous l'égide du SHIELD 1 C' ce PRON _ _ 2 subj@expl _ Gloss=It 2 est être AUX _ _ 0 root _ Gloss=is 3 l' le DET _ _ 4 det _ Gloss=the 4 équipe équipe NOUN _ _ 2 comp:pred _ Gloss=team 5-6 des _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5 de de ADP _ _ 4 udep _ Gloss=of 6 les le DET _ _ 7 det _ Gloss=the 7 Vengeurs vengeur NOUN _ _ 5 comp:obj _ Gloss=Avengers 8 qui qui PRON _ _ 9 subj _ Gloss=which 9 est être AUX _ _ 2 comp:cleft _ Gloss=is 10 reconstituée reconstituer VERB _ _ 9 comp:aux@tense _ Gloss=reconstituted 11 sous sous ADP _ _ 9 mod _ Gloss=under 12 l' le DET _ _ 13 det _ Gloss=the 13 égide égide NOUN _ _ 11 comp:obj _ Gloss=aegis 14-15 du _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 14 de de ADP _ _ 13 udep _ Gloss=of 15 le le DET _ _ 16 det _ Gloss=the 16 SHIELD SHIELD PROPN _ _ 14 comp:obj _ _

Interrogatives

# text = Is it interesting? # text = Est-ce que c'est intéressant ? 1 Est être VERB _ _ 0 root _ Gloss=Is 2 -ce ce PRON _ _ 1 subj@expl _ Gloss=it 3 que que SCONJ _ _ 1 comp:pred _ Gloss=that 4 c' ce PRON _ _ 5 subj _ Gloss=it 5 est être AUX _ _ 3 comp:obj _ Gloss=is 6 intéressant intéressant ADJ _ _ 5 comp:pred _ Gloss=interesting 7 ? ? PUNCT _ _ 1 punct _ _
# text_en = What do you have? # text = Qu'est ce que tu as ? 1 Qu' que PRON _ _ 2 comp:pred _ Gloss=what 2 est être AUX _ _ 0 root _ Gloss=is 3 ce ce PRON _ _ 2 subj@expl _ Gloss=it 4 que que PRON _ _ 6 comp:obj _ Gloss=that 5 tu il PRON _ _ 6 subj _ Gloss=you 6 as avoir VERB _ _ 2 comp:cleft _ Gloss=have 7 ? ? PUNCT _ _ 2 punct _ _

comp:aux

In French, only three verbs are considered auxiliaries être, avoir and faire.

The comp:aux relation can be used with one of the three sub-relations @tense, @pass or @caus, depending on whether the auxiliary is expressing a tense, a passive or a causative construction. In French, the relation comp:aux@tense is used with both verbs être and avoir and is the most common sub-relation. The relation comp:aux@pass is only used with the verb être, while comp:aux@caus is only used with the verb faire.

Example of an auxiliary expressing a tense

# text_en = She has disappeared. 1 elle il PRON _ Gender=Fem|Number=Sing|Person=3|PronType=Prs 2 subj _ Gloss=she 2 a avoir AUX _ Mood=Ind|Number=Sing|Person=3|Tense=Pres|VerbForm=Fin 0 root _ Gloss=has 3 disparu disparaître VERB _ Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|VerbForm=Part 2 comp:aux@tense _ Gloss=disappeared

Example of a passive construction

# text_en = The castle is then sold. 1 Le le DET _ Definite=Def|Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|PronType=Art 2 det _ Gloss=the 2 château château NOUN _ Gender=Masc|Number=Sing 3 subj@pass _ Gloss=castle 3 est être AUX _ Mood=Ind|Number=Sing|Person=3|Tense=Pres|VerbForm=Fin 0 root _ Gloss=is 4 ensuite ensuite ADV _ _ 3 mod _ Gloss=next 5 vendu vendre VERB _ Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|VerbForm=Part 3 comp:aux@pass _ Gloss=sold

Example of a causative construction

# text_en = He makes it fall. 1 il il PRON _ Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Person=3|PronType=Prs 3 subj _ Gloss=he 2 le le PRON _ Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Person=3|PronType=Prs 3 comp:obj@agent _ Gloss=it 3 fait faire AUX _ Mood=Ind|Number=Sing|Person=3|Tense=Pres|VerbForm=Fin 0 root _ Gloss=makes 4 tomber tomber VERB _ VerbForm=Inf 3 comp:aux@caus _ Gloss=fall