French SUD Guidelines

SUD for French

This page outlines various features specific to French.

comp:aux

In French, only three verbs are considered auxiliaries être, avoir and faire.

The comp:aux relation can be used with one of the three sub-relations @tense, @pass or @caus, depending on whether the auxiliary is expressing a tense, a passive or a causative construction. In French, the relation comp:aux@tense is used with both verbs être and avoir and is the most common sub-relation. The relation comp:aux@pass is only used with the verb être, while comp:aux@caus is only used with the verb faire.

Example of an auxiliary expressing a tense

# text_en = She has disappeared. 1 elle il PRON _ Gender=Fem|Number=Sing|Person=3|PronType=Prs 2 subj _ Gloss=she 2 a avoir AUX _ Mood=Ind|Number=Sing|Person=3|Tense=Pres|VerbForm=Fin 0 root _ Gloss=has 3 disparu disparaître VERB _ Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|VerbForm=Part 2 comp:aux@tense _ Gloss=disappeared

Example of a passive construction

# text_en = The castle is then sold. 1 Le le DET _ Definite=Def|Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|PronType=Art 2 det _ Gloss=the 2 château château NOUN _ Gender=Masc|Number=Sing 3 subj@pass _ Gloss=castle 3 est être AUX _ Mood=Ind|Number=Sing|Person=3|Tense=Pres|VerbForm=Fin 0 root _ Gloss=is 4 ensuite ensuite ADV _ _ 3 mod _ Gloss=next 5 vendu vendre VERB _ Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Tense=Past|VerbForm=Part 3 comp:aux@pass _ Gloss=sold

Example of a causative construction

# text_en = He makes it fall. 1 il il PRON _ Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Person=3|PronType=Prs 3 subj _ Gloss=he 2 le le PRON _ Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|Person=3|PronType=Prs 3 comp:obj@agent _ Gloss=it 3 fait faire AUX _ Mood=Ind|Number=Sing|Person=3|Tense=Pres|VerbForm=Fin 0 root _ Gloss=makes 4 tomber tomber VERB _ VerbForm=Inf 3 comp:aux@caus _ Gloss=fall